As of this year, I started signing my reviews. This decision has been a long time coming. A lot of people sign their reviews making this not a particularly newsworthy event but I’ll tell you about it anyway, largely to have a record of when I started and also to explain my reasons.
To explain why, I first need to talk about why one might not want to sign peer reviews. The debate about whether or not to sign reviews has been raging for years. It divides people’s minds and the debate regularly sparks up again. Even the people who agree that the process of scientific research can be improved seem to often fall into two camps whose opinions are diametrically opposed: one side fervently argues that all peer reviews should be transparent and signed, whilst other people argue with equal fervour that ideally all reviews should be double-blind, so that neither reviewers nor authors’ know each other’s identities.
Whenever someone suggests double-blind reviews, people are wont to argue that this simply doesn’t work in many situations. It is possible to guess the reviewers from the research question and/or the methods used. If the authors previously presented the research at a conference it is likely that reviewers will have already seen it in a preliminary form. That said, the very few times I did review in a double-blind manner I actually didn’t guess the authors’ identities and in one case I was in fact reviewing the work of friends and collaborators without even knowing it. I’d like to think I would’ve been fair either way, but I must also admit that I was probably more sceptical and possibly less biased because I didn’t know who the authors were. Still, these cases are probably somewhat special – in many situations I would know the authors from the research or at least have a strong suspicion. The suspicion might also lead me to some erroneous assumptions, such as “These authors usually do this and that even though this isn’t mentioned here”. If my guess were actually wrong then this could skew my thought process unduly.
So I think double-blind reviewing is a bad idea. Now, many arguments have been brought forth as to why reviews should be anonymous. It can protect reviewers from the wrath of vengeful senior colleagues making unfair hiring or funding decisions because they didn’t like your review. There are a lot of arseholes in the world and this is certainly a possibility. But the truth is that anonymity doesn’t stop people from behaving in this way – and there is actually no compelling evidence that signed reviews make it worse. I have heard some harrowing tales from colleagues who were being treated unfairly by some major players in their fields because they thought that they had given their work a bad review. In one case, it was a PhD student of the assumed reviewer who received ill treatment – and the assumption was entirely incorrect.
You also frequently hear people’s guesses about who they think Reviewer 2 was on their latest rejected manuscript, often based on circumstantial or generally weak evidence. One of my favourites is the age old “He (because we know all reviewers are obviously male…) asked us to cite lots of his papers!” I am sure this happens but I wonder how often this deduction is correct. I almost never ask people to cite my papers – if I do it is because I feel they are directly relevant and citing them is the scholarly thing to do. It is far more likely that I ask people to cite the work of researchers whose work I know well when it is relevant. In many cases when people just “know” that Reviewer 2 is Professor X because they want X to be cited, it seems to me far more likely that the reviewer is one of Professor X’s postdocs or former students. In many cases, it may also be that Professor X’s work is an established part of the literature and thus in the interest of scholarship an unbiased reviewer will think it deserves being cited even though you think Professor X’s work is rubbish. In short, I find those kind of insane guessing games rather tedious and potentially quite damaging.
The first time I signed a review was when I reviewed for F1000Research where signing is mandatory. (I had already reviewed at Frontiers a few times where reviewer identities are public but I don’t think this counts: reviews aren’t signed upon submission of the review but only after publication of the paper. Moreover, the match between review and reviewer remains ambiguous). I must say reviewing this paper all in public was a rather uplifting experience. At all stages of this process I felt the communication between me and the authors was amicable and sensible in spite of the harshness of my decisions. I have also been led to believe that the authors appreciated my scepticism (although only they can tell you that for sure).
By signing I may have also been more polite than I might have been if my review were anonymous. I am not entirely convinced of this last argument because I typically try to be polite. There are a lot of dickheads out there who aren’t polite even when their identity is public :P. I also don’t buy that anonymous reviewers aren’t accountable and that thus the quality of the review suffers. Your review is still read by at least one editor – unless that editor is your close personal friend (which is still rare for me at least) then I do feel like someone is checking my review both for factual quality and politeness.
Either way, I did not perceive any adverse consequences of signing my reviews. If anything, it made me think harder about how I would write my review and to check the arguments I am making. Scientists should criticise and scrutinise each other. By this I don’t mean you should mistrust people’s intentions or question their competence. But science is fueled by scepticism and you should challenge anything that doesn’t make sense. I have certainly done so in my collaborations in the past (often to the frustration of my collaborators) and I try to encourage this in my own lab. I much rather have a student or postdoc who tells me that my idea makes no sense than someone who does everything I say. Researchers also do that at conferences where they discuss each other’s research. One of my most positive experiences from a conference was some rather intense – but very polite – discussions at a poster. Why can’t we do the same in paper reviews?
When I’m perfectly honest, the main reason I hadn’t signed reviews so far is that I was raised that way. Almost none of the reviews I ever received were signed – certainly none of the negative ones. Some reviewers (including very critical ones) revealed their identities after the manuscripts had been accepted for publication and I have done the same in some cases. But the status quo of my field was always that reviews were anonymous and that’s just how it was. Challenging this seemed to go against nature – but that really isn’t true. Whether or not reviews are signed is a question of culture, not nature. And I want to change this culture.
Signing reviews is a personal choice. I don’t think it should ever become mandatory. For one thing, I’m a libertarian (just to be clear, I’m not one of the delusional tea party types) and I don’t believe we should force people to do things that aren’t necessary. I don’t think signed reviews are necessary. I think making all review contents public would be an essential improvement to peer review, with or without signing. But signing reviews can be positive development and I believe it should be encouraged. I certainly think it is a positive development for me and this is why everyone should be free to take this step of their own accord. Signing my first reviews has been a strangely liberating experience. I don’t know if this will provoke the ire of powerful senior colleagues. In a few years’ time I may post an update about my experience. Somehow I doubt it will turn out to be a problem.